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The world of education uses many acronyms and abbreviations. We hope that this glossary helps to explain them.



Academies are publicly funded independent schools. They are all ability schools

established by sponsors from business, faith or voluntary groups. Academies have

different governance arrangements to other schools. An academy’s Funding

Agreement sets out the details of the governance arrangements for each school


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder this is

characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity or difficulty

controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person’s age


Achieving for Children is a Community Interest Company set up and jointly owned

by Kingston and Richmond Councils which delivers children’s social care and

education in both boroughs

Admissions code

All state schools are required to have admission procedures which meet the School

Admissions Code. Where more pupils apply to be admitted to a school than the

school has room for, its over-subscription criteria will be applied. In community and

voluntary controlled schools, the Local Authority is responsible for admissions. In

foundation and voluntary aided schools, the governing body is responsible

Articles of Association

The Articles of Association set out regulations for academies, including the

composition of the governing body


Autistic Spectrum Condition is a condition that affects social interaction,

communication, interests and behavior. The spectrum covers autism and Asperger


Associate members

Individuals appointed by the governing body of a LA maintained school. They are

not part of the governing body, but are allowed to attend meetings and sit on

committees and can be given voting powers. They are appointed for 1-4 years, with

the opportunity for re-appointment. An associate member could be a pupil,

member of staff, or someone with expertise in a particular area. Academies Articles

of Association allow them to appoint non-governors to committees and give them

voting rights

Attainment targets

These establish what children of differing ability should be expected to know and be

able to do by the end of each Key Stage of the Curriculum


Age-Weighted Pupil Unit – the sum of money allocated to the school for each pupil

according to age. This is the basic unit of funding for the school


Baseline assessment

Assessment of pupils' attainment on entry to Reception – it is not statutory, but many

local authorities encourage schools to carry it out

Board of Trustees

Refers to academy trusts and MATs only


Capital expenditure

Spending on projects, improvements, and extensions to the school


Chair of Governors helps to lead governing body and ensure governors play part in

strategic leadership of the school and drive school improvement. Power and

authority rest with the governing body as a whole, the CoG has no individual power


An agreement between two or more schools to work together on one particular

issue. They keep their individual governing bodies, but may set up a joint committee

to which they can delegate powers

Community governor

A governor representing community and local businesses chosen by members of a

governing board who have themselves been elected or appointed

Community schools

LA maintained schools at which the LA is the employer, owns the land and buildings

and sets the admission criteria

Community special schools

LA maintained schools which make special educational provision for pupils with

statements of special educational needs (SEN), whose needs cannot be fully met

from within mainstream provision. The LA is the employer, owns the land and

buildings and sets the admission criteria

Competitive tendering

Obtaining quotes or tenders from alternative suppliers before awarding contracts

Coopted governor

A governor coopted by the Governing Body for their specific skills and/or



Child Protection refers to the protection of children from violence, exploitation,

abuse and neglect. Article 19 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

provides for the protection of children in and out of the home


Continuous Professional Development for school staff or governors



Disclosure and Barring Service check (formerly CRB) helps to make safer recruitment

decisions and prevent unsuitable people from working with vulnerable groups,

including children


Disability Discrimination Act now repealed and replaced by The Equality Act 2010

Delegated budget

Money provided to schools, which governors can manage at their discretion

Delegated powers

Authority given to a committee, an individual governor or the

headteacher/principal to take action on behalf of the governing board. In multi

academy trusts, this also refers to powers delegated to local governing bodies

Designated person

Liaises with other services on behalf of young people in care and has a responsibility

for promoting their educational achievement


Department for Education – the government department responsible for education

and children’s services in England

Directed time

Time when a teacher must be available to carry out duties, including attending staff

and parent meetings, under the direction of the headteacher/principal – a

maximum of 1265 hours in a school year


A term used where National Curriculum requirements may not apply to a pupil


Deputy Headteacher


Dedicated School Grant - funding from central government to the local authority,

the majority of which is then delegated directly to individual schools through the LA's

funding formula



English as an Additional Language


Education Funding Agency. It is responsible for all revenue and capital funding for

schools, academies and building maintenance programmes


Education, health and care plans - the document which replaces statements of

Special Educational Needs and Learning Difficulties Assessments

Equality Act 2010

Brings together four previous Acts of Parliament (Equal Pay, Sex Discrimination, Race

Relations and Disability Discrimination) requires equal treatment of people

irrespective of age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership,

race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation


Education Welfare Officer – a professional worker who visits pupils' homes and deals

with attendance problems and other welfare matters in co-operation with the



The temporary or permanent removal of a pupil from school for serious breaches of

the school’s behaviour and discipline policy

Ex officio

Able to attend meetings by virtue of holding a particular office

Extended schools/services

Schools that provide a range of services and activities often beyond the school day,

to help meet the needs of the pupils, their families and the wider community


Early Years Foundation Stage a statutory framework sets standards for the learning,

development and care of children from birth to 5 years old and therefore covers

both Nursery and Reception years



Two or more LA maintained schools governed by one governing body


Fischer Family Trust - a non-profit company that provides data and analyses to LAs

and schools in England and Wales


Full Governing Body

Form of entry

The number of classes that a school admits each year

Foundation governor

A governor appointed by the foundation body of a voluntary school

Foundation schools

LA maintained schools in which the governing body is the employer, owns the land

and buildings and sets the admission criteria

Foundation special schools

LA maintained special schools, which have the same freedoms as foundation

schools (see above)

Foundation stage

Curriculum followed by children below statutory school age, in schools and

nursery/pre-school provision

Free School

A type of academy, either a new school set up in response to parental demand or a

fee-paying school joining the state education system


Free School Meals - pupils are eligible for FSM if their parents receive certain benefits



Gifted and Talented describes pupils with the ability or potential to develop

significantly ahead of their peers in a particular subject

Governing board

An overarching term which refers to both the board of LA maintained schools

(governing bodies) and academies/MATs (board of trustees)

Governing body

Refers to LA maintained schools only



Higher Level Teaching Assistant similar work to a TA with additional responsibility

often allowing teachers time to plan and mark


Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Schools


Her Majesty's Inspector





Individual Education Plan for pupils with special educational needs


In-Service Education and Training – courses for practising teachers and other school


Instrument of Government

A legal document setting out the name of the school and the constitution of the

governing board


Key Stages (KS1-4)

The four stages of the National Curriculum. The key stages are KS1 (age 5-7), KS2

(age 7-11), KS3 (age 11-14), KS4 (age 14-16). KS5 applies to 16-19 years-olds but is not

part of the National Curriculum


Local Authority (LA)

Local authorities (LAs) are part of local councils, i.e. borough, county, metropolitan

and city. Within local councils, LAs are accountable for early years education,

schools, adult education and youth services. Community, foundation and voluntary

schools are funded directly by their LA

Local Governing Body

The governors at an individual school in a multi-academy trust


Learning Support Assistant similar role to TAs but employed to support a specific pupil



Multi academy trust - where two or more academies are governed by one Trust (the

Members) and a board of Directors (the Governors)


Modern Foreign Languages

Mixed ability

A teaching group in which children of all abilities are taught together



National Association of Head Teachers - a headteacher union

National College for Teaching and Leadership (NCTL)

The organisation responsible for national training programmes for school leaders,

aspiring school leaders and the development of leaders of Children's Services. In

particular, it is responsible for the National Professional Qualification for Headship,

the Chairs of Governors Leadership Development Programme and Clerks to

Governing Bodies Training Programme

National Curriculum

This was established by the 1988 Education Reform Act to ensure that all pupils

receive a broad and balanced education, which is relevant to their needs

Non-teaching (Support) Staff

Members of the school staff employed by the governors to provide services in a

school, such as teaching assistants, cleaners and office staff


National Professional Qualification for Headship professional course to develop the

skills, knowledge and confidence needed to become a highly effective



National Union of Teachers - a teaching union



Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills – the body which

inspects education and training for learners of all ages and inspects and regulates

care for children and young people

Over subscribed

A school that has more applications from parents than places available



Published Admissions Number – the number of children the LA (or governing body of

a foundation or aided school or Academy Trust) determines must be admitted to

any one year group in the school

Peripatetic Teacher

A teacher who teaches in a number of schools to give specialist instruction


Post Graduate Certificate of Education,one of the routes into teaching. A PGCE

can be studied full-time or part-time following the completion of a first degree


Private Finance Initiative is a way of funding public building through leasing

arrangements with private firms. Private firms design, build and often manage new

building programmes. The building is leased back to the public body, usually over a

period of 20-30 years


Planning, Preparation and Assessment – 10% guaranteed non-contact time for



Performance Related Pay - schools following the STCPD must now ensure teachers'

pay is linked to their performance


Personal, social and health education


Parent Teacher Association – or PSA (Parent Staff Association)


Pupil/Teacher Ratio – this is calculated by dividing the number of pupils in a school

by the number of full-time equivalent teachers

Pupil Premium

This money goes with eligible pupils to the school they attend, and has been

distributed in addition to the underlying schools budget from 2011-2012. The funding

is allocated to pupils eligible for FSM, in care, or who have parents in the armed


Pupil profile

Broad evaluation of a pupil's personality, interests and capabilities – this forms part of

the pupil's Record of Achievement



Qualified Teacher Status awarded once NQT has successfully completed their first

year of teaching in school. All teachers in maintained schools must have QTS


The minimum number of members present at a meeting before decisions can be



Reception baseline assessment

An assessment taken by pupils in reception, against which progress at the end of key

stage 2 will be measured.


A formal decision which has been proposed, seconded and agreed – not

necessarily by a vote – at a meeting


Relationships  and Sex Education; learning about the emotional, social and physical

aspects of growing up, relationships, sex, human sexuality and sexual health



Standard Assessment Tests given at the end of years 2, 6 & 9. Used to assess the

attainment of children attending maintained schools in England. They comprise a

mixture of teacher-led and test-based assessment depending on the age of the


School Census

A statutory return which takes place in October and January from which the school

budget is determined

Schools Forum

A Schools Forum has been established in each LA area to advise on the allocation

of the funding for schools – the majority of places on this body should be filled by

governors and headteacher/principals, preferably in equal numbers


School Development Plan highlights key priorities for school improvement over a

period of 3 years


The release of staff on a temporary basis for work elsewhere


Self Evaluation Form although no longer statutory it is a crucial part of the schools’

on-going cycle of review and planning, often appraised by Ofsted in school

inspections as a summary of the school’s own evaluation of strengths and areas for



Special Educational Needs and Disabilities – learning difficulties for which special

educational provision has to be made


Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator – the teacher responsible for co-ordinating

SEND provision in the school


A system of organising pupils into ability groups for particular subjects


Schools Financial Value Standard - a means for the governing board to assess its

financial processes, capabilities and skills


School Improvement Partner – consultant offering professional support and

challenge, provided by the local authority


Senior Leadership Team – this often includes the headteacher, deputy headteacher

and other senior members of staff


Specific Learning Difficulty a classification used when a person has a difficulty

learning in a typical manner, such as dyslexia

Special school

Schools that make provision for pupils with statements of special educational needs

(SEN), whose needs cannot be fully met from within mainstream provision

Special Unit (or Resourced Provision)

A unit attached to a mainstream school to cater for children with specific special



School Teachers’ Pay and Conditions Document


A system of organising pupils into classes according to their ability across a range of

subjects. Setting and streaming are not the same thing



Teaching Assistant support teachers and help children with their educational and

social development both in and out of the classroom

Terms of reference

The scope and limitations of a committee's activity or area of knowledge


Teaching and Learning Responsibility - payment made to teachers for an additional


Trust Deed

The deed by which a voluntary aided or a voluntary controlled school has been


Trust Schools

Foundation schools with a foundation body established under the Education and

Inspections Act 2006 – the foundation body may appoint either a minority or a

majority of the governing body



Union of Public Employees



Value Added, the progress schools help pupils make relative to their individual

starting points – rather than looking at raw results VA also takes into account the

prior attainment, thus enabling a judgement to be made about the effect of the

school on pupils’ current attainment

Vertical grouping

Classes formed (in primary schools) with children of different age groups


The agreed transfer of money from the budget heading to which it has been

allocated to another budget heading


Voluntary Aided, a school set up and owned by a voluntary body, usually a church

body, largely financed by the LA. The governing body employs the staff and controls

pupil admissions and religious education. The school’s buildings and land (apart

from playing fields) will normally be owned by a charitable foundation


Young Carer

A young carer is anyone under 18 years of age who helps to look after a family

member who is disabled, physically or mentally ill or has a substance misuse problem

November 2016